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Response To Brigitte Gabriel’s Lecture – “Religion of Peace: A Brief History of Islam”

Having watched one of Brigitte Gabriel talk on Youtube, titled “Religion of Peace: A Brief History of Islam”, I had to make a quick response to the amount of distortions she gave throughout the 15 minute video.

This article, is just a simple response to the quotes (Quran and Hadith) she deliberately misquoted. Note, in order to know full answers, readers have to go the links I have provided.

CLAIM 1:

Minute 1:40 onwards she claims that Muhammed moved from Makkah to Madinah because his people didnt accept him. The Prophet and his people were tortured, murdered and eventually they were forcefully exiled out of Makkah. Even when the Muslims settled to get on with their lives they were still hunted down to be killed just for abandoning their former polytheistic faith:
Did Quraysh Persecute Muslims When They Fled To Madinah?

CLAIM 2:

In minute 2: 40 she claims that when Muhammed showed the Jews Islamic faith and they rejected it, this is when they were killed. This again, is not true. Banu Qaynuqa, Banu Nadir, and Banu Qurayza one by one sided with enemies against the Muslims. Even on a number of occasions tried to assassinate the Prophet.

More information in the links:

Banu Qaynuqa
Invasion of Banu Qaynuqa?

Banu Nadir:
Analysing The Banu Nadir Incident

Banu Qurayza
Re-Examining Banu Qurayzah Incident

CLAIM 3:

She claims the Muslims went from being spiritual in Makkah to war when they had the upper hand. This again is not true when we consult historical reports. The Muslims started fighting when they were continuously persecuted in Madinah by Quraysh, this led to other tribes in Madinah also siding with Quraysh. Please refer to point 1, link for more information.

CLAIM 4:

Minute 3:40 she claims that those non-Muslims who were allowed to be alive were treated as second class citizens. The tax that was levied on non-Muslims was also compulsory on the Muslims. The Prophet nor his companions treated non-Muslims wrongly. They were equal citizens as the Muslims.

Answering Jihad: “Fight Against Those Who Do Not Believe” – Quran 9:29

CLAIM 5:

Minute 4:20 I do not know where she gets that claim from that that non-Muslims were the ‘dirt’ (Najas). I have never come across any report. It seems she makes things up as she goes along. The only I am aware of is in chapter 9, there is a verse which says polytheists are ‘filthy’ (speaking from memory), but the commentators all agree that is referred to their polytheistic beliefs, not themselves.

CLAIM 6:

Minute 4, onwards. She says that a 9th Century leader made Jews wear an identifiable clothes, what does have to do with what Prophet Muhammed taught? There is no Hadith or Quranic verse which orders this. In-fact God says to treat all non-Muslims well, being just to them as long as they don’t fight the Muslims physically:

“Allah does not forbid you, with regard to those who do not fight you on account of your religion nor drive you out of your homes, to treat them with goodness and to be just to them; truly, Allah loves those who are just. Indeed, Allah forbids you (only) with regard to those who fight you on account of religion and drive you out of your homes, and assist (others) in driving you out, that you turn to them (in friendship); and whoever turns to them (in friendship), they are wrongdoers. (Quran – Al-Mumtahanah: 60:8-9)

More here:
The Relationship Of The Muslim With Non-Muslims

CLAIM 7:

Minute 5. Force non-Muslims to the side of the road? When certain Muslims abuse Islamic scripture, this has nothing to do how the Hadith was interpreted by the companions. This Hadith she mentioned has been answered in detail.

MORE Here:

Force non-Muslims to the side of the road?

And here: https://discover-the-truth.com/2017/05/05/hadith-do-not-greet-jews-force-them-to-narrow-road-explained/

CLAIM 8:

Minute 5:40, she claims the crusades happened as result of Muslims treating non-Muslims so bad. If that was the case, then why did the Christian crusaders slaughter thousand upon thousand innocent Jews? What did Muslim women and children do to get slaughtered by Christian crusaders?

CLAIM 9:

Minute 8:15, she claims that Islam did not give women the right to education. The Prophet emphasized all Muslims (Men and women) to seek education. So this was not something newly invented by Ataturk. More in the link:

Does Islam Prohibit Educating Women?

CLAIM 10:

Minute 8:17 She says Ataturk “ gave women the right to choose a husband”. She is inferring he is that Islam as a religion forces women to accept marriage. That women in Islam have no right to choose their husband. Islamic scripture has categorically forbidden forced marriages. There are many Prophetic sayings where he says without the woman’s consent the marriage is NOT binding:

Islam on Forced Marriage

CLAIM 11:

Minute 8:20, Muslim women under Ataturk was forcefully not allowed choose to wear Hijab. Bridgitt brings it up as if it was a good thing. Seems as though she likes dictators who impose on what women can wear or not.

CLAIM 12:

Minute 8:56, she claimed that when the Caliphate ended 270 Million people were killed by Muslims. This claim has been recycled so many times by right-winger they take it as if it is Revelation from God. Anyways, this claim has no historical truth to it. This claim has been debunked many times:

http://web.archive.org/web/20150419054637/http://ed4444.tumblr.com/post/9078777434/the-lie-that-muslims-have-killed-270-million

CLAIM 13:

13. Minute 11:10. There is nothing Islamic about those savages in the Middle-East. They are far away from the teachings of Islam. In-fact, one of the biggest newspapers in America, the WashingtonPost.com, states that majority of the ISIS (Daesh) leaders are secularist Baathists. The article:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle_east/the-hidden-hand-behind-the-islamic-state-militants-saddam-husseins/2015/04/04/aa97676c-cc32-11e4-8730-4f473416e759_story.html

In Another newspaper article published by TheIndependent.co.uk, The US military’s Combating Terrorism Center (CTC) said that many of their members do NOT even know the basics of Islamic Law.

TheIndependent.co.uk reports:

“The one area of education that was noticeably lacking, however, was that in Islamic law, or Sharia. Of those who answered a question on the level of their religious knowledge, 70 per cent described it as “basic”,… The finding supports analysts’ assertions that Isis has twisted the Quran to serve its purposes, introducing brutal and “un-Islamic” punishments in its territories.”

LINK
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/isis-documents-leak-reveals-profile-of-average-militant-as-young-well-educated-but-with-only-basic-a6995111.html

“Secret al-Qaeda memo: We must recruit and manipulate ‘ignorant’ Muslims” (27th February 2018)
https://english.alarabiya.net/en/features/2018/02/27/EXPOSED-How-al-Qaeda-only-targeted-ignorant-recruits-avoided-the-elite.html

CLAIM 14:

14. Minute 11:40, she claims that Muslims are allowed to lie to advance their faith. There is Not a single verse or Hadith which advocates for such. She is clearly deceiving and lying to the audience. This claim has been responded to in the following article:
Response To ‘Taqiyya’ Deception – Lying

CLAIM 15:

Minute 12:30, the Quraysh’s caravan was attacked as a result of the Quraysh not stopping their persecuting and oppressing Muslims. This is related to us in a number of historical reports:
Did Quraysh Persecute Muslims When They Fled To Madinah?

CLAIM 16:

Minute 12:40 she claims that Makkah was conquered by Muhammed for no reason. Again, historical reports tell us when the Quraysh signed the treat of truce with the Muslims they agreed that they would NOT attack any of Muhammed’s allies. However, Quraysh with Banu Bakr attacked and killed many men of Banu Khuza’a (an ally of Muhammed) which led to Quraysh breaking the treaty they had signed. This is when Muhammed conquered Makkah, it was as a result of the Quraysh and Banu Bakr killing and attacking Khuza’a.
An Historical Examination Of The Sword Verse – Surah 9:5

From 13 minute onwards I don’t know what she was talking about.

One thing that can be drawn from watching her talk is that when someone tells you something go verify it with credible sources. Bridgitte Gabriel doesn’t really care what Islamic sources say, her aim is to make money. So if that means she has to say things that historically not true she would say it, to fatten her piggy bank.

Did The Prophet Of Islam Order Or Support The Killing Of Innocents?

This article was taken from the following Blog:
www.discover-the-truth.com

بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

Kaleef K. Karim

 

The links below contains results and reasons as to why some people were killed by the command of the Prophet (p). I have done a thorough examination of these people as to why they were killed. The reason I undertook this task, is because there is a lot of misinformation online trying to portray these aggressors and warmongers as the victims and the Prophet (p) as the aggressor, when in reality it is the opposite. In a lot of these cases we either find that the stories are fabricated or when the story is true, critics have deceptively hidden facts to show Prophet Muhammed (p) in a bad light. Click on the links below for more information:

 

1. Umm Qirfa – Murder/Robbery

2. Asma bint Marwan – [Part 1]

3. Asma Bint Marwan – [Part 2]

4. Abu Afak – Instigated War

5. Al Nadr ibn al-Harith – Persecuted Muslims

6. Uqba bin Abu Muayt – Persecuted Muslims/Waged War

7. Ka’b ibn al-Ashraf – Waging War/Persecuting Muslims

8. Abu Rafi’ ibn Abi Al-Huqaiq – Warmonger

9. Khalid ibn Sufyan – Waging War

10. Abu ‘Azzah ‘Amr bin ‘Abd Allah al-Jumahi – Soldier who fought against the Muslims

11. Muawiyah bin Al Mugheerah – Spy

12. Al-Harith bin Suwayd al-Ansari – Murder

13. Abu Sufyan – Persecutor/Tried Killing The Prophet (p)

14. Banu Qurayza tribe [Part 1] – Waged war against Muslims

15. Bany Qurayza tribe [Part 2] – Waged war against Muslims

16. Al-Yusayr ibn Rizam – Warmonger

17. Eight men from Ukil – Murder/Robbery

18. Rifa’ah bin Qays – Incited tribes to go to war against Muslims

19. Abdullah bin Khatal – Murder/Apostasy?

20. Fartana – Poet/Fabricated Story

21. Huwayrith ibn Nafidh – Persecuted Muslims/Waged war

22. Miqyas ibn Subabah – Murder

23. Sarah – Poet/Fabricated story

24. Harith ibn Hisham – Waged war

25. Habbar Ibn al-Aswad bin Ka`b al-`Ansi – Persecuted/Waged War against Muslims

26. Ikrimah ibn Abu Jahl – Waged War

27. Wahshi ibn Harb – Killed The Prophet’s Uncle

28. Ka’b ibn Zuhayr ibn Abi Sulama – Poet/Fabricated story

29. Al-Harith bin al-Talatil – Poet/Fabricated story

30. Abdullah ibn Zib’ari – Poet/Unreliable story

31. Hubayrah – Poet/Unreliable story

32. Hind bint Utbah – Mutilated the Prophet’s companions

33. Amr ibn Jihash – Tried to assassinate the Prophet (p)

34. King or Prince of Dumatul Jandal – Alliance with an enemy

35. Umaiya bin Khalaf Abi Safwan – Persecuted Muslims

36. Ibn Sunayna – Murder

37. Abdullah ibn Sa‘ad (Or better known as Abdullah ibn Sa’d ibn Abi as-sarh) – Killing Muslims/Apostasy?

38. Blind Jew – Throwing dust

39. Nameless spy

40. Man from Aslam tribe – Adultery/Lashed

41. Kinana ibn al-Rabi – Murder: The bit about treasure is fabricated

 

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Related articles:

Does the Quran order violence against the innocent?

Does Islam encourage Muslims to lie – Taqiyya?

Does the Holy Bible allow Christians to lie?

What does Islam say about Rape? [Part 1]

What does Islam say about Rape? [Part 2]

What does the Arabic word ‘Jihad’ mean?

Can Christians And Jews Be Friends With Muslims? [Part 1]

Can Christians And Jews Be Friends With Muslims? [Part 2]

Are there any Hadith collections from Early Islam?

The article Below was Originally Posted from this website – Link:
http://discover-the-truth.com/2013/10/13/are-there-any-hadith-collections-from-early-islam/

One of the claims hurled at Muslims by Christian missionaries and Hadith-rejecters are that they say: “there are no hadiths collections from early Islam”. According to them, Hadiths came into existence 250 to 300 years after the Prophet Muhammed’s (p) demise.

In this article I will show evidence from Non-Muslim Scholars that Hadith existed way, way before the dates they have brought forth.

First Century Hadith Collections

Sahifa Hamman B. Munabbih

It is well-known fact among Muslim scholars that Hammam B. Munabbih was a student of Abu Huraira. The earliest hadith collection we have extant is Sahifa b. Munabbih which was written by the student of Abu Huraira. The Books name is ‘Sahifah Hammam b.Munabbih’.

1. American Scholar William Albert Graham who is a Professor of middle eastern studies says:
“…..Of the four remaining collections, the earliest is the Sahifah of Hammam b. Munabbih (d. Ca. 101-02/719-20). It is a collection of 138 hadiths that dates from around the end of the first Century A.H. and contains some eighteen Divine sayings.” [1]

2. Professor Alfred Felix Landon Beeston also comments on Sahifa Hammam B. Munabbih, he says:
“An example is the Sahifah of Hammam b. Munabbih, (d. 110/719), a Yemenite follower and a disciple of Companion Abu Hurayrah, (d. 58/677), from whom Hammam learned and wrote this sahifah, which comprises 138 hadith and is believed to have been written around the mid-first/seventh Century.
It is significant that Hammam introduces his text with the words: ‘Abu Hurayra told us in the course of what he related from the Prophet’, thus giving the source of his information in the manner which became known as sanad or isnad i.e. the teacher or chain of teachers through whom an author reaches the Prophet, a practice invariably and systematically followed hadith in compilations. [2]

3. In the Book ‘Encyclopaedic Historiography of the Muslim World’, written by Professor Nagendra Kr. Singh, he goes in detail on Hadith and also comments on Sahifa B. Munabbih. Take also notice of him saying that ‘ORAL TRANSMISSION’ OF HADITH was the most favoured, he says:
Compilation of hadith in a book form had become a known practice even during the prophet’s lifetime. We are told that Ali b. Abu Talib had compiled a small book containing Traditions of the Prophet, ‘Abdullah b. ‘Amr b. Al-As has also collected by permission of the Prophet, some Traditions in a book, which he named as al-Sahifa al-sadiqa. Similarly, Jabir b. Abdillah (d. 78 A.H.) was the compiler of a small collection of hadith. Abu Huraira and Amr b. Hazm are also reported to have gathered some Traditions while the latter had also committed to writing a number of such letters of the Prophet as he had despatched to the neighbouring rulers inviting them to embrace the new faith. Abu Huraira, a close companion of the Prophet, had preserved and transmitted a large number of traditions.

Apart from oral transmission, he is reported to have dictated some traditions to his pupils who committed them to writing. Hammam b. Munabbih compiled a book entitled al-sahifa, of which the manuscripts are found in the libraries of Berlin and Damascus. Its Arabic text along with the Urdu Translation and necessary notes has recently been published by Dr. Hamidullah. Ma’mar b. Rashid, a disciple of Hammam, also compiled a book entitled Jami, Manuscripts of which are in the Ankara University Library and in Istanbul.

Abu Bakr Abd al-Razzaq b. Hammam al-san’ani (126-211 A.H.) was a student of ma’mar and one of the teachers of Ahamd b. Hanbal. He is also the compiler of a book entitled ‘musannaf’. In view of these facts, it would be erroneous to assume, as some of the orientalists do, that the work of hadith-compilation was unknown during the prophet’s lifetime, and hence the entire collection of hadith becomes of questionable authenticity.

We have seen that Abu Huraira, his pupil Hammam b. Munabbih, his disciple Ma’mar and his pupil Rashid, his student Abd al-Razzq and his pupil Ahmad b. Hanbal have made continued efforts in preserving and compiling the hadith literature. After the discovery of these works we may rightly suppose that there must have been some other compiled works which did not come down to us. It should be also kept in mind that because of scarcity and dearth of writing material, oral transmission was a popular practice during the early days of Islam. Furthermore, this had become a common practice since the pre-Islamic days because ‘Days of the Arab’, legends of the Prophets, and the Jahiliyya poetry were transmitted orally. Nay, dictation or writing of such material was rather looked down upon as compared to oral transmission. [3]

‘Musanaf of Abdul Razzaq’ to be a source of Authentic Hadith from the 1st Century’*

Professor Harold Motzki believes ‘Musanaf of Abdul Razzaq’ to be a source of Authentic Hadith from the 1st Century*. His article is massive, I am just going to present his Conclusion, he says:
“While studying the Musannaf of `Abd al-Razzaq, I came to the conclusion that the theory championed by Goldziher, Schacht, and in their footsteps, many others – myself included – which in general, reject hadith literature as a historically reliable sources for the first century AH, deprives the historical study of early Islam of an important and a useful type of source.” [4]

Muwatta Imam Malik’ compiled Mid-second century AH

Mālik ibn Anas who was born in the year 711 and died 795 (93 AH – 179 AH ) is another Early Scholar of Islam who collected hadiths. He was one of the most highly respected scholars of fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence) in Sunni Islam. Imam Malik while he was alive compiled a Hadith book. The Hadith Book’s name is ‘Muwatta Imam Malik’ and we still have this Hadith book extant to this day.

Ilya Pavlovich Petrushevsky (1898–1977) who was a Professor of History of the Near East at the University of Leningrad for twenty years, comments on Imam Malik’s Muwatta, he says:
“The oldest collections of Hadith were compiled according to tariqs that is, the companions of the Prophet were listed in alphabetical order and under each name the hadith issuing from the particular fountain head would be supplied. This principle of compilation was known as ‘ala r-rijal, ‘ on (the names of) the earliest reporters’. Of the EXTANT COLLEXTIONS of this type two are celebrated. One if the Muwatta or Beaten Track of malik b. Anas (d. 795), eponymous founder of the Malikite system…..” [5]

Clinton Bennett:
“Topically arranged (musannaf) works also appear in the mid-second/eighth century. The earliest extant musannaf work is the Muwatta of Medinan Scholar malik b. Anas (d. 179 AH/795 CE), the eponymous founder of the Maliki school of Sunni jurisprudence and teacher of Muhammad ibn Idris al-Shafii (d. 204 AH/820 CE).” [6]

I will finish my article of with a last reference by Professor Michael Bonner who refutes the Joseph Schacht’s theory that somehow Hadith could not be traced before the year 718 -719. He says:

“Schacht thought that no hadith could be proved to date from before year 100 of the Hijra (718-719 CE). There is much more to Schacht’s theory than this, but here it will suffice to point out that for several decades in the West, much of the argument over the hadith has been an argument over the theories of Joseph Schacht. Nowadays Schacht’s work, together with Goldizher, is less favoured than it was not very long ago. As more texts of hadith and early Islamic law have become available, several scholars have analyzed these materials, correlating the Isnad (the supporting chain of authority for such hadith itself) in more painstaking and systematic ways than Schacht had done in his day. As a result of this work, we can perceive in RICH DETAIL, the activities of transmission of learning and production of written texts, going on in early periods, sometimes before the cutoff date of AH 100 that Schacht declared to be the outer limit.” [7]

Conclusion: From all the evidence presented by Non-Muslim Scholars just goes to show how reliable early hadiths transmitters and collectors were. Whatever Muslim Scholars of the past have said on Hadith reliability, now Non-Muslim Scholars affirm this truth. I believe everything I have brought forth in this article from Academic sources thoroughly debunks missionary liars.

References:

[1] Divine Word and Prophetic Word in Early Islam (1977) By William Albert Graham page 82
[2] Arabic Literature to the End of the Umayyad Period (2003) By A. F. L. Beeston page 272
[3] Encyclopaedic Historiography of the Muslim World By Nagendra Kr. Singh volume 1 Page 317 [Author Kr. Singh http://www.easternbookcorporation.com/moreinfo.php?txt_searchstring=3769]
[4] The Muṣannaf of ʿAbd al-Razzāq al-Sanʿānī as a Source of Authentic Aḥādīth of the First Century A. H. Harald Motzki Journal of Near Eastern Studies Vol. 50, No. 1 (Jan., 1991), pp. 21
[5] Islam in Iran By Professor Ilya Pavlovich Petrushevsky page 105
[6] The Bloomsbury Companion to Islamic Studies edited by Clinton Bennett page 80
[7] Jihad in Islamic History: Doctrines and Practice By Professor Michael Bonner page 48

 

 

Bible: Child Marriage in Ancient Israelite times – Paedophilia?

The article Below was Originally Posted from this website – Link:
http://discover-the-truth.com/2013/09/14/bible-child-marriage-in-ancient-israelite-times-paedophilia/

In Biblical times, people were married at a very young age. Girls were usually betrothed before they reached puberty – majority of the time the marriage would have consummated when the girl reached puberty and that was usually between the ages of 8, 9 or older,(Note: when a girl reached puberty prior to the 20th century, she was considered to be an adult in most cultures/societies). In this article I will mostly quote Scholarly sources to prove that marriage in ancient Israelite times took place at a very young age, sometimes the girls who were married off were pre-pubescent. There was no law against a pre-pubescent girl being married off. Actually as you will read further, you would come to realise that the Mishnah gave approval for a Man to have intercourse to a betrothed girl, anytime after the age of three years old.

 

Isaac’s wife was Rebecca, mother of Jacob and Esua. According the calculations made by Rabbi Solomon Itzhaki (A.K.A. Rashi a well-known respected Jewish Scholar), Rebecca was three years old when she married Isaac.


1. Rashi’s commentary on Genesis 25:20 says:

forty years old: For when Abraham came from Mount Moriah, he was informed that Rebecca had been born. Isaac was then thirty-seven years old, for at that time Sarah died, and from the time that Isaac was born until the “Binding” [of Isaac], when Sarah died, were thirty-seven years, for she was ninety years old when Isaac was born, and one hundred and twenty-seven when she died, as it is stated (above 23:1): “The life of Sarah was [a hundred and twenty-seven years.”] This makes Isaac thirty-seven years old, and at that time, Rebecca was born. He waited for her until she would be fit for marital relations-three years-and then married her.— [From Gen. Rabbah 57:1
[Retrieved it from this website: http://www.chabad.org/library/bible_cdo/aid/8220/showrashi/true]


2.
 Also Johann Buxtorf cites Rashi that Rebecca was three years old when she married Isaac. Do focus carefully on the words:
Rabbi Solomon in his comment on Genesis, says that Rebecca, when she was married to Isaac, was but three Years of Age. His words run thus, ‘When Abraham was come from Mount Moria, he received the joyful News of Rebecca. Isaac was at that Time Thirty seven years old; and then did Sarah die. The time, from birth of Isaac to the death of Sarah, was Thirty seven Years, And Sarah was Ninety Years old when Isaac was born; and One Hundred and Twenty Seven Years old when she died: As it is said in Gen 23:1 . Sarah was one hundred and twenty-seven years old. Behold, the Age of Isaac was Thirty Seven Years, at the Time of the Birth of Rebecca. And when he had waited for her three Years, till she was fit for marriage, he took her to wife.”
According to this Account, Rebecca was a very notable Girl at three years of age. But that a girl of three Years old is fit for marriage, is maintained very plainly in the Jewish writings; particularly, in Emek Hamelech, in the following passage, ‘our blessed sags, of blessed memory, say, that a female is not fit for marriage, ‘till she is arrived at the Age of three years and one day.’ The Talmud supports these Sages here, in the part entitled Avoda Sara. And the Sanhedrin says, A daughter, who is of the age of three years and one day, is, by being bedded with a Man, lawfully married.” [1]

Before going any further, one of the objections raised by some Jews and most Christians is that they say: “how can a three year old fetch water out of a well?” They further say: – “a girl of that age could not do that she must be a lot older than three.” These statements do not disapprove anything. The way they make it seem, as if it is impossible for a girl to pull 1, 2 letters of water. Any three old girl could pull 1, 2 letters of water out of a well, is not rocket science.
I have a challenge for you people, if it is impossible for a three-year old to pull out 1, 2 litters of water – bring me some solid proof (evidence) that a 3-year-old girl could not do that.


3.
 In addition to what we have already brought forth on Isaac’s marriage to Rebecca, The Zohar 1:136b Pritzker Edition. Volume two
which is Translated/Commentary by Daniel Chanan Matt also makes mention that Isaac married Rebecca when she was three years old:
51. “She was three years old when he embraced her the youngest legal age a female can be-married. See M Niddah 5:4; Seder Olam Rabbah 1; Soferim, add. 1:4 Rashi on Genesis 25:20 Tosafot, Yevamot 61b, s.v. ve-khen; sekhe; Tov, Genesis 24:14.
Rebekah’s three years correspond to the three colors of the rainbow.
52. He engendered at sixty, generating fittingly… see Genesis 25:26. When Isaac fathered Jacob he was sixty years old, symbolizing the full sextet of sefirot from hesed through Yesod, thereby ensuring that Jacob would be complete. [2]

As you have read it is quite clear/fact that Rebecca married Isaac when she was three years old. Furthermore we have more evidence from Judaic Holy Book ‘Mishnah’, it gives more weight to the above references that girls as young as three years old were allowed to be betrothed by intercourse at the age of three. Although in Ancient Hebrew marriages girls were recommend to be married at the age of 12, there are laws in the Mishnah that give approval that once betrothed you can have sexual intercourse anytime after the age of three years old.


4. Jacob Neusner is an American academic scholar of Judaism
. In the Book: ‘The Comparative Hermeneutics of Rabbinic Judaism: Seder Tohorot. Tohorot through Uqsin.’ The Jewish oral Torah i.e. Mishnah says:
M. 5:4 A girl three years and one day old is betrothed by intercourse. And if a Levir has had intercourse with her, he has acquired her. And they are laible on her account because of the law [Prohibiting intercourse with] a married woman. And she imparts uncleanness to him who has intercourse with her [when she is menstruating] to convey uncleanness to the lower as to the upper layer. [If] she was married to a priest, she eats heave offering. [If] one of those who are unfit [for marriage] has intercourse with her, he has rendered her unfit to marry into priesthood. [If] one of all those who are forbidden in the Torah to have intercourse with her, he is put to death on her account, but she is free of responsibility. [3]

 

There you have it a girl of three can be betrothed by intercourse according to Jewish law. We won’t stop here, there is more evidence.


5. A Commentary on the above verse, in the Book: ‘A history of the Mishnaic Law of Purities. 15. Niddah. Edited by Jacob Neusner, it says:

M. 5:4-5 bring us to the next stage in the matter of the legal status of children, female and male. The girl three years and one day old is deemed capable of sexual relations, which accounts for A, B, and C. D. Presumably should not be apply to M. 5:3-a; if the girl is unclean as a menstruant but is incapable of sexual relations, one who has (or attempts) relations with her is not made unclean as is one who has had sexual relations with a menstruant. E simply goes over familiar ground; since the girl can be acquired as a wife, she also may eat heave-offering. F. Follows, and G. Repeats what is already obvious. But H limits the matter. The girl is not held responsible in a matter of forbidden sexual relations. I is a minor gloss. If the girl is less than three years and one day old, we do not regard the sexual relationship as of legal consequence. The theory is that the tokens of Virginity are restored before that time but not afterword. [4]


6. The Anglican Priest Herbert Danby
 in the Book: ‘The Mishnah: Translated from the Hebrew with Introduction and Brief Explanatory notes.’ It says that a girl of three years old and one day could be betrothed by the brother’s husband and he can have intercourse with her:
A girl three years old and one day may be betrothed by intercourse; her deceased childless husband’s brother can acquire her by intercourse; and by connexion with her a man can be culpable by virtue of the Law of a married woman; and him that has connexion with her [while she is a menstruant] she renders unclean so that he conveys uncleanness to what is beneath him in like degree as [he that has a flux conveys uncleanness] to what lies above him’ if she married to a priest she may eat of Heave-offering; if one that is ineligible has connexion with her he renders her ineligible for marriage with a priest; if any of the forbidden degrees prescribed in the Law had connexion with her they are put to death on her account, but she is not culpable. If she is younger than this, it is as one that puts a finger in the eye.” [5]


7. Edward Hendrie
 also echoes the same statements made previously:
“Orthodox Judaism has a very permissive attitude towards sexual deviance. For example:
Sanhedrin 55b: It is permitted to have sexual intercourse with a girl three years and one day old. See also Yebamoth 57b, 60b; Abodah Zarah 37a.
Kethoboth 11b: When a grown-up man has intercourse with a little girl it is nothing, for when the girl is less than three years old it is as if one puts the finger into the eye, tears come to the eye again and again, so does virginity come back to the little girl under three years.” [6]


8. Professor Joshua A. Fogel
 in his book: ‘Reading Tractate Avodah Zarah of the Babylonian Talmud.’ He says the: ‘tumah of a zav’ is when it happens that is when a boy is ready to cohabit. The Hebrew word ‘zav’ means: “In Torah terminology, the Hebrew word zav (lit. “flow”) is a state of ritual impurity arising from abnormal seminal discharge from the male sexual organ” (see Wikipedia.com). Here is what is said:
“The orevious daf ended with R. Yehudah ha-Nasi accepting the view of R. Chiyya that an idolater conveys the tumah of a zav from the nine years and one day (not just one day). When asked about this age, he replies that this is the age at which he is able to cohabit and thus convey the tumah of a zav. If nine seems on the young side, it’s three for girls. In other tractates of the Talmud, these ages, especially for a girl, become extremely relevant, such as in determining what constitutes rape or marriage by cohabitation; I mentioned in here only because how shockingly young it seems to my (and probably most) 21st century eyes. It is Ravina who argues for age of three for girls, rather than from birth which was put forth by Rav Nachman bar Yitzchack on the previous daf. Ravina contribution is to match age cohabitation with age of zav (or niddah) tumah capacity.” [7]


9. Robin Grille says:

“Among the ancient Hebrews, betrothal by sexual intercourse was permitted with girls aged three years and day, and marriages for girls was actually recommended at 12 years of age. The Biblical woman and child were property, not persons. For the right to marry a pre-pubescent girl, one simply had to pay an agreed sum to her father. In India, child marriage was condemned by law until 1929, although around 80 per cent of the population was still practicing it.” [8]


10. Mary De Young says:

“The possession of Children by their parents was also given religious sanction in the teachings of both the Talmud and the Bible. Rush (1880) states that the Talmud teaches that a girl of ‘three years and one day’ could be betrothed through an act of sexual intercourse.” [9]


11. Professor Geza Vermes
 who is well known and highly respected scholar comments that Pre-pubescent girls were allowed to be married:
“…the Greek parthenos could also mean that the girl was young and/or unmarried. In fact, in the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament parthenos was used to render three distinct Hebrew words, ‘Virgin’, ‘girl’ and ‘young woman’. Already Rabbis in the Tannaitic era (first to second century ad) subscribed to further nuances, and there is no reason to think that all these were invented by them. Even the word betulah, which normally means virgo intact, when used by them could carry the laternal sense of bodily immaturity with the consequential inability to conceive. In Rabbinic terminology this type of virginity in a woman ceased with the physical onset of puberty. The Mishnah, the oldest of the rabbinic codes, defines a virgin as a female who ‘has never seen blood even though she is married’ (mNiddah 1:4). The Tosefta, another early Jewish code of law, claims in the name of Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus (late first century ad) that such a woman would continue to count as a virgin even after she had conceived and borne children without prior menstruation (tNiddah 1:6)! To understand these statements, we must remember that in the InterTestamental and early rabbinic age, pre-puberty marriage was generally permitted. In fact rabbis seriously debated whether bloodstains found after the wedding night in nuptial bed of a minor, i.e. a ‘virgin in respect of menstruation’, marked her first period or the consummation of the marriage.” [10]


12. Reverend Kathryn J. Riss
 also makes mention that in first century parents married off their daughters who were pre-pubescent to much older men. What is interesting is she does not mention once that Rabbis or anyone higher up in authority speaking against such marriages:
“The longest New Testament passage on marriage is found, not in Ephesians, but in 1 Corinthians chapter 7. In stark contrast to the legal positions and social expectations of the first century, here the rights and responsibilities of man and woman are upheld as equal. Although marriages were arranged by parents, who often espoused their pre-pubescent daughters to much OLDER MEN….” [11]


13. Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, Volume 8 edited by three great Scholars: G. Johannes Botterweck, Helmer Ringgren and Heinz-Josef Fabry says:

“One might counter that the expression mohar habbetulot (Ex. 22:16[17]) refers rather to the pretium virginitatis. In this case, the mohar would be compensation to the girl for the loss of her virginity. This explanation, however, is unacceptable, since it proceeds on the assumption that the term betula means ‘virgin.’ This may doubtlessly be the case in many passages, but in joel 1:8, betula thus refers to a married woman who had been ‘possessed’ by her husband (ba’al); betula thus refers to a marriageable girl who was physically able to cope with a man, ‘taking her into his possession.’ Here the term betula says nothing about her virginity. Ex.22:16 (17) (kesep yisqol kemohar hab betulot) can thus be translated ‘he shall weigh out as much silver as is required for marriageable girls.’ In this context we should point out that ancient Hebrew custom did not associate marriageability with puberty. In contrast to the marriageable girl (betula), the…. Alma refers to a girl in puberty capable of conception. Girls could in fact already be given marriage long before actual physical maturity, perhaps even as young as five years old (cf. Lev. 27:5), and it did happen that marriages were already consummated with prepubescent girls. [12]


14. Zeʼev Wîlhelm Falq:

“A more common practice was the marrying off of minor daughters by their fathers. For instance King Agrippa(s) (41-44 C.E.), left three daughters: ‘of these, one, Berenice, who was sixteen years old, was married to Herod, her father’s BROTHER, and two were unmarried, namely Mariamne and Drusilla, aged respectively ten and six years. They had been promised by their fathers in marriage, Marriamne to Julius Archelaus, son of Helkias, and Drusilla to Epiphanes, the son of Antiochus, King of Commagene’ (Josephus, XIX Antiquites, 9. 1. 354). In such cases, marriage and consummation would be postponed until the BRIDE REACHED PUBERTY: it was held proper to marry off a minor daughter with her consent and not against her will. However, these rules were not only applicable to a minor daughter given in marriage by her father, since his right to do so is expressly mentioned in the Torah (Exodus XXI 7; Deuteronomy XXII 16).” [13]


15. T. J. Wray:

“In the Hebrew Bible and New Testament, marriage is considered the natural state for men and women, and although there are certainly instances where Jewish men (and rarely, Jewish women) are not married, this is the exception rather than norm. Most women marry quite young, usually soon after the onset of menstruation, which of course, heralds fertility. Men typically marry later (in their twenties, or even thirties) and this most men are older than their wives.” [14]


16. Harry L. Tabony:

“BC. The good book of Genesis says that after a few generations Abraham’s progeny had grown to sizeable numbers. That is understandable, considering the practice of multiple wives and marriage just after puberty for girls. Abraham’s many sons could father thousands of children, considering ample girls available from the natives of Canaan.” [15]


17. Encyclopedia of the Jewish Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture, Volume 1 By Professor Mark Avrum Ehrlich says:

“Girls were often married to their uncles on their father’s side, or to their cousins, in order to secure the family’s capital and in the hope that their kin would take good care of them. Minor girls were betrothed by their fathers (by Kidushin, a legally binding commitment) even before they came of age, and usually began living with their husbands-occasionally much older than them- at the age of puberty.” [16]


18.
 Respected Rabbi Isaac Klein in his book: ‘A Guide to Jewish Religious Practice’, says that Child marriages were common and that ‘age was not the factor’ when someone had to get married. So in other words no matter what the age of the girl, once the parents gave the go ahead, the girl had to choose the husband, she had no choice in the matter:
Child marriages were very common in ancient days. Since marriages were arranged by parents and the consent of parties was not necessary,AGE WAS NOT THE FACTOR in coming to an agreement. The physical factor related only to the consummation of the marriage. Hence, there was usually a waiting period between the agreement and the consummation. It is logical to assume that when a boy and a girl reached the age of puberty, and the sex urge demanded satisfaction, ancient society deemed marriage to be the answer. In time, other elements became factor in marriage: climate, social conditions, economic conditions, and even political conditions.” [17]


19. Scholar of the Old Testament Gordon Wenham says:

“In reality social custom and pressures greatly curtailed the sexual freedom of men in the Bible times. First, marriages were customarily arranged by parents, as soon as children passed puberty. This meant that there were few unattached girls: most females of marriageable age were either married or betrothed….” [18]


20. David M. Carr Professor of Old Testament says:

“…ancient Israelite women did have to deal with a constant stream of pregnancies, from when they reached puberty in their teens until they died in their twenties or thirties.” [19]


21. Dr. Richard H. Lowery:

“A typical adult Israelite male had a life expectancy of forty years. Infant mortality rates were high, perhaps as high as 50 percent. So women typically had two pregnancies for every one child who reached age five. Since the economic survival of the household depended on the production of able-bodied children, women married immediately after puberty and were pregnant or nursing for a relatively large portion of their life.” [20]


22. Saba Soomekh:

“In the early twentieth-century, Iranian Jewish women married at a very young age, either when they reached puberty or by their fifteenth year or sixteenth birthday. Similarly, Jewish women living in Ottoman Libya were married once a girl reached puberty and under Italian rule, ‘women married when they reached their fifteenth or sixteenth birthday, but at times, the brides were much younger.” [21]


23. Steven M. Lowenstein Professor of Jewish History says:

“The next great life cycle event in Jewish life after the bar Mirzvah is marriage. In most traditional societies (Jewish and Non-Jewish), marriages were arranged between families, with only the most perfunctory consultation with the couple to-be, and often involved complex financial arrangements such as dowries and trousseaus. In the middle ages the age at marriage seems to have been around puberty throughout the Jewish world….” [22]


24. Ruth Lamdan:

“The numerous references to child marriage in the 16th- century Responsa literature and other sources, shows that child marriage was so common, it was virtually the norm. In this context, it is important to remember that in halakha, the term ‘minor’ refers to a girl under twelve years and a day. A girl aged twelve and a half was already considered an adult in all respects.” [23]

25. Philip J. King:
“A few anecdotal incidents, and a wealth of later documentation, suggests that women married young, while still in their teens, sometimes early teens, in fact; men waited until well into their twenties or even early thirties before marrying.” [24]


26. Ken Blady:

“Persian Jews married off their children very early: boys at ten or twelve, and girls at the very tender age of six or seven. Some girls were mothers by age twelve or thirteen. Polygamy was practiced only by men who could afford more than one wife. It was common for a prepubescent girl to marry a man who was old enough to be her grandfather.” [25]


27. Professor Harvey E. Goldberg:

“Habbani Jewish ‘women’ were almost always prepubescent at their first marriage. Their first husbands were often in their late teens. Normally, there was neither bride price nor dowry, but a groom was expected to provide wedding jewelry and seven goats for the wedding festivities. The jewelry became a woman’s property. Occasionally, the bridegroom was far older than the bride.” [26]


28. Jonathan B. Krasner
 says that betrothal took place at the age of eight or nine, now keep in mind earlier we provided evidences that once a girl was betrothed the husband can engage with her sexually:
“Betrothal, or engagement, generally occurred at the age eight or nine. Jewish girls typically married at age eleven or twelve and boys at about thirteen or fourteen. (In Germany and France, Christian girls typically married at twelve or thirteen, and boys were usually in their late teens or twenties.)….
(Marriage in Ashkenazic).” [27]


Conclusion:
 I believe who ever will read this will agree that Judaism in past practiced and allowed pre-pubescent marriages. Also Isaac’s marriage to Rebecca; all the evidence presented is in agreement that Isaac married Rebecca when she was three years old. Whatever some Christian/Jews (modern) may say about Rebecca being older because she fetched water out of a well, they have no proof that a girl of three cannot fetch 1 – 2 litters of water out of a well. As I said earlier, bring the evidence that a girl can’t do it. I also gave many references that the Mishnah gave approval for girls to be betrothed by intercourse at the age of three.


References:


[1] Johann Buxtorf, Johann Andreas Eisenmenger, John Peter Stehelin

Rabinical literature: or, The traditions of the Jews, contained in their Talmud and other mystical writings. Likewise the opinions of that people concerning Messiah, and the time and manner of his appearing; with an appendix comprizing Buxtorf’s account of the religious customs and ceremonies of that nation; also, A preliminary enquiry into the origin, progress, authority, and usefulness of these traditions; wherein the sense of the strange allegories in the Talmud and Jewish authors is explained. [ Publisher: London J. Robinson, 1748] Volume 1 page 33 – 34
[2] The Zohar: Pritzker Edition. Volume two, (2003) page 264 [The Zohar 1:136b] Translation and Commentary by Daniel Chanan Matt
[3] The Comparative Hermeneutics of Rabbinic Judaism: Seder Tohorot. Tohorot through Uqsin By Jacob Neusner Volume 6 [Copyright 2000] page 152
[4]A history of the Mishnaic Law of Purities. 15. Niddah . Commentary edited by Jacob Neusner page 83
[5] The Mishnah: Translated from the Hebrew with Introduction and Brief Explanatory notes Herbert Danby page 750
[6] Solving the Mystery of Babylon the Great By Edward Hendrie
[7] Reading Tractate Avodah Zarah of the Babylonian Talmud By Professor Joshua A. Fogel page 84
[8]Parenting for a Peaceful World By Robin Grille
[9]Mary De Young The sexual victimization of children page 103
[10] The Changing Faces of Jesus By Geza Vermes
[11] Journey’s End: Removing Biblical Barriers Between Women and Their Destiny By Reverend Kathryn J. Riss, THM page 164
[12] Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, Volume 8 edited by G. Johannes Botterweck, Helmer Ringgren, Heinz-Josef Fabry [1997] page 144 – 145
[13] Introduction to Jewish law of the second Commonwealth. 2 (1978) By Zeʼev Wîlhelm Falq part 2 page 278
[14] What the Bible Really Tells Us: The Essential Guide to Biblical Literacy By T. J. Wray page 146 chapter 7
[15] Christianity’s Source: It All Came from Ancient Egypt By Harry L. Tabony
[16] Encyclopedia of the Jewish Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture, Volume 1 By Mark Avrum Ehrlich page 258
[17] A Guide to Jewish Religious Practice By Isaac Klein page 396
[18] Story as Torah: Reading the Old Testament Ethically By Gordon Wenham page 84
[19] The Erotic Word: Sexuality, Spirituality, and the Bible By David M. Carr Professor of Old Testament Union Theological Seminary In New York page 43
[20]Sabbath and Jubilee (Understanding Biblical Themes) By Richard H. Lowery page 8
[21] Saba Soomekh Between Religion and Culture: Three Generations of Iranian Jewish Women from the Shahs to Los Angeles Page 65
[22] The Jewish Cultural Tapestry : International Jewish Folk Traditions By Steven M. Lowenstein, Professor of Jewish History, University of Judaism page 108
[23] A Separate People: Jewish Women in Palestine, Syria, and Egypt in the sixteenth Century By Rûth Lamdān page 47
[24] Life in Biblical Israel By Philip J. King, Lawrence E. Stage page 37
[25] Jewish Communities in Exotic Places By Ken Blady Page 69
[26] Sephardi and Middle Eastern Jewries: History and Culture in the Modern Era edited by Harvey E. Goldberg page 267
[27] The History of the Jewish People: A Story of Tradition And Change By Jonathan B. Krasner, Jonathan D. Sarnapage volume 1 page 83